In June 2010, the Faculty Mentoring Program was established as an Ad Hoc committee of the Philippine Nurses Association of America (PNAA) initiated by PNAA President, Dr. Reynaldo Rivera. The committee was created with members representing the four regions of the PNAA. In December 2010, the Committee formulated a Handbook for the Mentoring Program and the program was implemented in February 2011.
As the official professional organization of Filipino-American nurses in the U.S., the PNAA commits to: a) uphold the positive image and welfare of its constituent members, b) promote professional excellence, and c) contribute to significant outcomes to healthcare and society by facilitating professional and cultural adjustment of Filipino American Nurses in the US through collaboration with agencies and organizations in the US and the Philippines and by participating actively in professional and cultural activities with professional organizations in the community and globally.
The framework is based on the Dreyfus Model applied by Patricia Benner in nursing, From Novice to Expert. The model posits that in the acquisition and development of a skill, the faculty mentee passes through five levels of proficiency: novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient, and expert. These levels reflect changes in three aspects of performance: 1) Moving to a paradigm of action from reliance on abstract principles to using past concrete experience, 2) Changing perception of a situation from a compilation of equally relevant components to a more complete whole and only certain parts are relevant, and 3) Passage from detached observation to involved performer.
Mentoring refers to a personal development relationship in which a more experienced or more knowledgeable person helps a less experienced mentee to achieve his/her professional goals. Evidence of benefits of mentoring includes higher salaries and promotions (Whitely & Cotsier, 1993) and greater sense of satisfaction, career mobility, and recognition than those not mentored (Fagenson, 1989).
The PNAA Mentoring Committee consists of program coordinators assigned to each school particularly their own alma mater. Each mentoring sub-group consists of a Program Coordinator, the Dean of the College of Nursing, Mentor(s) and a Mentee. For the initial implementation, four universities in Manila, and one in Tuguegarao, Cagayan were selected. The roles of the Deans and Program Coordinators were established.
One faculty mentee was selected by his/her respective Dean and submitted an application to the Committee specifying his/her interests, strengths and areas for mentoring. Mentors were recruited by the Committee and selected by submitting an application form, letter of intent and curriculum vitae. Mentors were then matched with Mentees’ needs. Eligibility criteria for both mentors and mentees included technological competence, communication skills, commitment and trustworthiness. Mentors and Mentees signed a statement of confidentiality.
Outcomes evaluation will be conducted at the end of the year using Donabedian’s (1996) tripartite model of evaluation, Structure, Process and Outcomes. A tool comprised of 18 items divided into 2 subscales and answerable by a 5-pont Likert scale will be piloted to generate feedback on the structure and process of the Mentoring Program from all participants. A qualitative questionnaire comprised of 6 open-ended questions will be used to generate feedback from each of the Mentees and Deans.
Benner, P. (1984). From novice to expert: Excellence and power in clinical nursing practice. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley
Donabedian, A. (July, 1996). Evaluating the quality of medical care, Part 2. The Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, 44:166-203.
Fagenson, E.A. (1989). The mentor advantage: Perceived career/job experiences of protégés versus nonproteges. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10, 309-320.
Whitely, W. & Coetsier, P. (1993). The relationship of career mentoring to early career outcomes. Organizational Studies, 14(3), 419-441